Friday, September 7, 2007

CO-CURRICULUM AND CURRICULUM by Hanan & Hidayah (BBAF3E UiTM Bandaraya Melaka in fullfilment for BEL 492)







DEFINITION OF CO-CURRICULUM


Co-curriculum is modeled on developmental theories which suggest that students move from a rather insular view of themselves and the world. As a result of their experiences and learning which occurs both in-and out-of the classroom they develop into individuals with a more defined identity and pluralistic view of the world. Specifically, as students move along this continuum of cognitive and personal development such as develop a sense of purpose where they are able to formulate personal, intellectual, and career goals, develop competence and experience growth in their intellectual, interpersonal, and physical skills, develop their personal identity by becoming aware of their gender, sexual orientation, self acceptance, and self esteem.


DEFINITION OF CURRICULUM

Curriculum has many different conceptions. It may include any educational experience. It may also be conceived as a conversation, relationships, and it is this phenomenon of plurality that is inherent in the new paradigm view of curriculum.
Curriculum has its
roots in the Latin word for a race-course, and explained curriculum as the course of deeds and experiences in which children become the adults that they should be, for success in adult society. Curriculum must be understood as encompassing not only those experiences that take place within schools, but the entire scope of formative experience both within and outside of schools. Further, this includes experiences that are not planned or directed, as well as experiences that are intentionally directed (in or out of school) for the purposeful formation of adult members of society.


VISION OF CO-CURRICULUM AND CURRICULUM


Quality and efficient centre for administration and resources for all extra-curricular activities for primary, secondary and tertiary learning institutions which accounts:

a) MEANINGFUL
-Its emphasises the active construction of meaning, so that all students find purpose in their studies.


b) SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE
- Its develops in students a sense of social responsibility, so that they become aware of their obligations and duties as citizens in a democracy and are especially sensitive to the needs of the poor and the aged.


c) MULTICULTURAL
-Its reflects and is responsive to the cultural diversity of this nation and our community, so that students develop a sense of pride in their own heritage and a respect for that of others.


d) REFLECTIVE
-Its fosters in students the skills and attitudes of reflection, so that they are able to think critically, creatively, and affirmatively.

e) HOLISTIC
-Its gives appropriate emphasis to all the significant aspects of growth and all the types of human intelligence, helping students see the connections between the separate subjects.


f) GLOBAL
-Its develops in students an awareness of global interdependence in all aspects of life, including the environment and the economy.


g) OPEN-ENDED
-Its open-ended in two ways: it is open to revision and continued refinement; and it provides open access to all students, allowing them to go beyond explicitly stated learning outcomes in curriculum and co-curriculum documents.


h) GOAL-BASED
-Its focuses on significant goals, so that all students, including those with special needs, develop the critical skills and acquire the knowledge they need for effective lifelong learning and full functioning as citizens in a changing society.


i) TECHNOLOGICAL
- Its uses technology as one delivery system, examines the influence of technology on students’ lives, and gives students the skills they need to use technology.





MISSION OF CO-CURRICULUM AND CURRICULUM


• Extra Curricular Activity is the supplement to the formal education in the classrooms and aids in the complete and total personal development. It will help to improve the quality of learning. As a result, it also will improve the quality of students in that institution.


• The end product hence, will not only be an individual who is capable to possess a successful career, but an individual who is responsible and supervise to the country, nation and religion and to comply with the national aspirations of a Malay Islamic Monarchy.




OBJECTIVE


There are several objectives of curriculum and co-curriculum activities such as:

  • To produce youths with charisma, discipline, high-spirit, vision, vision and resilience besides the inculcation of love to the community and country. All the above characteristics will help them to the attainment of worthwhile goals.
  • To teach the students basic survival and leadership skills such that they will develop such skills for their excellence in their career and life. As a result, they will able to attaining superior work performance where the work is done in an effective and efficient manner.
  • To teach the students to organize their own ways and means of recreation in a healthy manner, and hence towards a healthy life style. Students will be educated regarding the choices and strategies necessary to develop a healthy lifestyle. Students will have opportunities to develop and express their physical creative capacities. Besides that, students will have opportunities to participate in athletic programs, and recreational and other physical activities. So, students will understand the importance of incorporating physical and recreational opportunities into their lives.
  • To train students in academic excellence as well as areas this can develop their spiritual, cognitive and physical which then in turn helps in their responsibility towards the country, nation and religion. Students will affirm the importance of congruence between thought and action, words and actions, and authenticity in their academic and personal lives.



TYPES OF CO-CURRICULUM

There are 3 main types of co-curriculum:


1. Society
- Society means an organization or club for people who have a particular interest or take part in a particular activity. For example, English society and debate club.


2. Uniform bodies
- Is a organization that involved by people that wear the same uniform. This uniform indicates their identity. Usually people who involved in this organization are people that have high self-discipline. For examples Reserve Officer Training Unit (ROTU) and “Kesatria”.


3. Sport and games
- It is the enjoyable activities which people can involve to spend their leisure time and for fun. For examples, Badminton and valley ball.


FUNCTION OF SOCIETY


• To encourage student to be independent and make their own decision in any situation. They don’t have to depend on others to make decision. Students will develop their problem solving and coping abilities.

• To build confident in themselves. Through the involvement in society people can improve their communication skill by practice speaking up at meeting with other members. Students will develop and demonstrate effective interpersonal communication skills (i.e. speak clearly and articulately, listen, and clearly articulate meaning in a written form) with individuals from a variety of backgrounds This will enhance their confidence.


• To discover talent and skills of student in several fields such as debate, story telling and so on. They can know the real of themselves by identify and exploit their talents and abilities.

• To teach student on conducting or organizing the societies’ activities. By involving in society they can learn how to conduct and organize events. Here, they can identify their leadership quality.


FUNCTION OF UNIFORM BODIES

• To educate and practice leadership characteristic among student. For example commander kesatria. There are able to lead and control their unit.

• To produce student with a good moral. People involving in uniform bodies are very discipline and this will reflect their attitude and behavior.

• To train student to be independent, discipline, responsible and creative thinking. Students will expand upon their critical thinking skills (i.e., the capacity to comprehend, analyze, and synthesize complex issues). They are highly disciplined people who are willing to make sacrifices and postpone immediate gratification for reaping future dividends.

• To encourage them to involve in charity work. There are trained to be care to the public and helping them when confronting difficulties.

• To build close relationship between the student and public. By involving in charity work, they actually develop relationship with the public. Students will develop and demonstrate respect for themselves and others


FUCNTION OF SPORT AND GAMES

• To encourage student to involve in sport and recreational activities. Sport and games are good activities for student to release their tension in study.

• To develop interest and game spirit. Student can identify their talent and interest on sport and games activities. At the same time, they can practice a good game spirit.

• To expose student on game’s rule. They can learn to be discipline and following the rule of the games which are fixed.

• To learn skills, tactic and technique of games. Students will experience growth in their intellectual, interpersonal, and physical skills through their achievements and interactions with the curriculum and co-curriculum.

• To develop team spirit, high level of discipline and leadership characteristic. Students will develop their leadership capacity and understand their style.



IMPORTANCE OF CO-CURRICULUM

a) Build teamwork

-Joining a club which focuses on school subjects can help deepen a student’s knowledge. Students will learn to be effective contributors to group processes.



b) Mental and physical endurance

-Being active in sports and games can help strengthen physical and mental health. Students will be educated regarding the choices and strategies necessary to develop a healthy lifestyle.



c) Patriotism

-Co-curriculum activities such as uniform bodies can build awareness of love their own country. They will learn how to appreciate their country.



d) Discipline and other skills among students

-It train student to be independent, discipline, responsible and creative thinking. They are highly disciplined people who are willing to make sacrifices and postpone immediate gratification for reaping future dividends.

e) Students need to be exposed to real life outside the classrooms

- With a conducive environment and proper guidance, co-curricular activities can boost the talent, skills and competitive spirit of students to the extent of them being able to compete at an international level, like what the Sekolah Alam Shah brass band and Convent Bukit Nanas F1 Technology Challenge team did.


f) Encourage integration among students

- Students will learn that personal responsibility and integrity are essential qualities necessary for life, work, and community living. Students will recognize the importance of being engaged citizens and their role in responding to the needs of society.

g) Being active in co-curricular activities is now an entry criterion to schools and higher educational institutions

-This follows the Government’s decision to assess applicants based on their academic achievement (90%) and co-curriculum involvement (10%) for this year’s public university intake.




THE WAYS TO SUCCESS IN BOTH ACADEMIC AND CO-CURRICULUM ACTIVITIES


a) Time Management

- Able to manage the time effectively. It involves managing themselves in such a manner as to optimize the time they have. The essence of time management is determination of goals and priorities. Student should maximize their time to attain worthwhile goals. Their daily activities should be consistence with their goals.


b) Personal Management

- Must able to manage all aspects in your life in order for better personal management. It encompasses the personal appearance, personal health, the way you communicate with others and so on. It makes your life better and more systematic.

c) Communication Skills

- Effective communication allows us to get our ideas across, solve problems or conflicts easily, and to find out what other people have to say. Students will develop and demonstrate effective interpersonal communication skills. For examples, speak clearly and articulately, listen, and clearly articulate meaning in a written form with individuals from a variety of backgrounds.




d) Be Focus and Reach for your star

- Form the habits of performing every job to the best of your ability. Focus on doing the right things right the first time and every time. Determine the key goals. Hence, prioritize the various goals and draw up action plans with realistic deadlines to attain them. So, your work will be more systematic and efficient, and enable you to achieve your goals.


e) Be organized – Keep and file all the papers you have read

- That mean you should set up a personal file system. All files should be clearly labeled. File papers neatly in the appropriate file folder. Clean out your files and discard information that is unneeded anymore.

f) Confront your fears and weaknesses

- You must be just your self. Don't compare yourself to others too much. Overcome your fears and weakness. Use the student counseling and academic advisor services if you have any problems. Be confidence to yourself.


g) Learning is continuous process

-Firstly, make full use of Internet Technology but not plagiarism / merely copy ’n paste. Secondly, make full use of Library, virtual Library ‘n Hypermedia Library. Thirdly, study smart and study hard. Fourthly, you must come early to lecture and tutorial class and prepare before comes to class. And then, you can make study group and so on.


HOW TO CHOOSE STUDENT ACTIVITIES?


• Based on your hobby or interest. Choose the appropriate sport and games to yourselves. So that you will enjoy with the activities. Indirectly, it will help you to reduce your stress on studies.

• To learn new things or skills. By involving in societies or clubs, you can get something new and enhance your ability on communication skills and leadership quality.

• Choose active club or society because there is guidance from others. You will enjoy if you involve in this kind of club or society. It is because there are many activities run and organize by them. So that you also can learn on conducting event.

• Choose inactive club or society to make it famous. You have the chance to lead the society or club and make it famous and more active. You can form a management committee to fulfill the objective and goals of the society or club.

• To make more friends from other faculty. Usually student who involve in co-curriculum activities are from different background and faculty. Through the activities that have organized, students have a chance to know each other.





CHALLENGES IN IMPLEMENTING CO-CURRICULUM

The main problem is the attitude of:

1. Parents
- Some parents do not allow their children to involve in such activities. This is because they afraid that co-curriculum activities can affect their academic.

2. Teachers
- There are some teachers who are really concern on academic. They are more focuses on academic compare to co-curriculum activities. Their main goals to develop more graduate who are success academically.

3. School administrators who place priority on academic achievement
- The administration of the school put their main objective on academic achievement. So they are not really emphasis on co-curriculum activities.

4. Lack of allocation
-In 2004, for example, each student was only allocated RM2.56 a year. At the same time, the ministry is also giving RM50,000 for co-curriculum management at every district. The total allocation is RM106 million. This sum does not include that for sports management and the participation of students in contests at international level.





5. The area that can be used for activities in schools is also limited
- Some schools provide small place or field to be used for co-curriculum activities. So they cannot do co-curriculum activities.




6. Lack of clear incentives and penalties
- For instance, entry into the matriculation programme in the past did not require a co-curriculum merit but more on academic achievement.







RECOMMENDATION


• Increase the participation of students, trainee teachers and lecturers at teacher training institutes and matriculation colleges in co-curricular activities.

• Co-curricular activities should become entry criteria to schools and higher educational institutions.

• Co-curriculum should become compulsory to in school and higher education. Every student should involve in co-curriculum activities.

• The ministry of education should allocate more money for co-curriculum activities in school and higher education. So that the management can provide more co-curriculum activities.


CONCLUSION

Co-curriculum should become an extra activity in education besides academic. If the students manage their time effectively, they will success in both academic and co-curriculum. It is also a healthy activity which enrich student physically and mentally. Besides developing the student to become a future leadership with a better quality. It is a now become a criteria to enter higher education institutions. This follows the Government’s decision to assess applicants based on their academic achievement (90%) and co-curriculum involvement (10%) for this year’s public university intake.





APPENDIX

ARTICLES 1

CO-CURRICULUM INVOLVEMENT TO COUNT FOR 10% IN VARSITY INTAKE

PUTRAJAYA: Eggheads take note. Just scoring all As will no longer guarantee you a place in competitive courses like medicine. Being active in sports and taking part in competitions will, however, give you an edge.
This follows the Government’s decision to assess applicants based on their academic achievement (90%) and co-curriculum involvement (10%) for this year’s public university intake.
Higher Education Management Department director-general Prof Datuk Dr Hassan Said warned that because of the new method, not every student with a CGPA (Cumulative Grade Point Average) of 4.0 who applied would receive a place in medicine.
“Under the new system, a student will get a maximum of 90 marks for his academic grades. His co-curriculum grade is added to this for a grand total of 100 marks. We no longer use just the CGPA grade alone,” he said.
For example, a CGPA of 4.00 is worth 90 marks, while a CGPA of 3.00 is equivalent to 67.5 marks (3.00x0.25x90). A student’s academic marks would then be added to his co-curriculum marks, say 7.5, to get the grand total (67.5+7.5=75).
“Those with a CGPA of 4.0 but scored zero marks in co-curriculum would lose out to a student with a CGPA of 3.6 who was active in hockey or badminton at state or country level. The latter would get more marks in total than the person who scored 4.0.
“There were instances of students with a 4.0 CGPA not getting their first choice,” Prof Hassan told a press conference yesterday to announce this year’s public university admission figures.
He said students are given up to 10 marks for co-curriculum participation. Only a student’s two highest scores from his involvement in either associations, sports, uniformed units or national service will be taken into consideration. National service trainees received six points.
“The students calculated and filled up their co-curricular marks themselves based on the information we gave the schools.
“If we had a doubt, we double-checked with their schools. We also checked the marks of all those who scored over 6 in their co-curriculum activities.
“From next year, however, the Ministry will obtain the marks directly from their schools and institutions,” he said.
“If you play computer games in your room you won’t get any marks. But if you are active on the sports field, you will receive points.”
He explained that previously the Education Ministry had taken co-curriculum marks into consideration for students’ entry into public universities but this was stopped when meritocracy was introduced in 2002.
“When meritocracy was introduced, it was decided that entry into university would be based on academic merit only. But the Cabinet decided last year that to ensure we produce more holistic individuals, we should once again take students’ co-curriculum marks into consideration,” he said.
A total of 40,016 students have been accepted for the 2006/07 academic year, a slight increase over last year’s figure of 39,976.
In line with government policy, of this number, 59% are doing science courses and 41% arts.
For the first time since meritocracy was introduced in 2002, Indians have gone above 6%.
As for medicine, there has also been a marginal increase in the number of places offered, from 910 last year to 925 (see chart).
Last year all STPM and matriculation students with a CGPA of 4.0 who applied were successful in their bid to do medicine.

Source: The Star Tuesday June 20, 2006




ARTICLE 2


AIMING FOR COMPLETE STUDENT
By : CHOK SUAT LING

Minister Datuk Seri Hishammuddin Hussein tells CHOK SUAT LING the new approaches to boost participation and explains why being active outside the classrooms is crucial Co-curricular activities can help build teamwork, mental and physical endurance, patriotism, discipline and other skills among students.



Q: Your ministry will concentrate on building human capital with special focus on co-curricular activities, under the second thrust of the National Education Blueprint 2006-2010. What do you want to achieve?

A: We want our human capital to be knowledgeable, have skills that are relevant to the times and be able to compete in a globalised world.
We want people with new ideas, who are critical and creative, adept at problem-solving, able to create new opportunities and adaptable to changes.We do not want human capital that is self-centred and lacking in values. They need to be principled, respectful of differences in others, and be good and effective leaders.



Q: How do you hope to achieve this?

A: We will give young people every means to enhance their potential. To achieve this, we have formulated several strategies. A wide range of opportunities will be open to them to pursue their interests.We are also reviewing the school assessment system to enable students to have a good grasp of all areas of knowledge. We do not want students to fall back on their studies to the extent that they drop out of school. We will be reviewing certain aspects related to the curriculum, co-curriculum and sports. We will also be strengthening programmes related to the acculturation of good social values and discipline. The 3K programme which focuses on cleanliness, health and safety awareness will also be given a boost.



Q: What is the role of co-curricular activities in building human capital?

A: Not everything can be taught in classrooms through a formal curriculum. Many values we hope to inculcate in students cannot be derived from books and theories alone.Students need to be exposed to real life outside the classrooms. That is why co-curricular activities are important. If we carry out activities in a planned and practical manner, we can mould students into well-rounded people who are balanced emotionally and intellectually.



Q: How would participation benefit students?

A: Being in a uniformed unit can help build team work, mental and physical endurance, patriotism, discipline and other skills.Joining a club which focuses on school subjects can help deepen a student’s knowledge. Being active in sports and games can help strengthen physical and mental health. With a conducive environment and proper guidance, co-curricular activities can boost the talent, skills and competitive spirit of students to the extent of them being able to compete at an international level, like what the Sekolah Alam Shah brass band and Convent Bukit Nanas F1 Technology Challenge team did. Co-curricular activities can also encourage integration among students. We will soon be launching a Rimup (Students Integration Plan for Unity) project called "F1 in Schools", which will see students designing model racing cars, and a robotics programme. Teams comprising Malay, Chinese and Indian students will be formed to participate in the contests.



Q: It has been said that student participation in co-curricular activities is still far from satisfactory.

A: When I first came to this ministry, a senior ministry official jokingly told me that while co-curricular activities were compulsory in schools, it was tak berdosa (not a sin) if not carried out. It might have been a joke but it reflected the reality of what was happening in schools. Even though the policy was clear, many factors impeded the implementation.In 2004, it was found that the participation of students in co-curricular activities was not up to mark, with only 56 per cent of secondary schools students involved in uniformed units. There was a series of workshops to identify the source of the problem. It was found that there were weaknesses in the policy statement, allocation, facilities and the attitude of parents. Changes were needed not only at school level but also in ministry divisions at state and district levels. A memorandum was presented to the cabinet and approved.


Q: What are the factors prohibiting proper implementation?

A: The main problem is the attitude of parents, teachers and school administrators who place priority on academic achievement. This attitude stems from a lack of clear incentives and penalties. For instance, entry into the matriculation programme in the past did not require a co-curriculum merit.Before this, too, entry into public universities was wholly dependent on academic achievement. Another problem was lack of allocation. In 2004, for example, each student was only allocated RM2.56 a year.This sum was too small for the three areas of compulsory participation — uniformed units; clubs and societies; and, sports and games. Those from poor families could not afford to participate.The area that can be used for activities in schools is also limited. There is a shortage of skilled and trained officers, not just at the ministry level but also at states, districts and schools, to carry out co-curricular activities.

Q: What has been done to resolve the problems?

A: The ministry proposed a review of seven aspects, the most important being a strengthening of policy to increase the participation of students, trainee teachers and lecturers at teacher training institutes and matriculation colleges in co-curricular activities. We have given value to participation in schools. Being active in co-curricular activities is now an entry criteria to schools and higher educational institutions. We will continue making co-curricular participation a pre-requisite for entry into fully residential schools, religious secondary schools, technical schools and teaching programmes offered by the ministry. It will also be a main criteria for entry into our matriculation programmes. We worked closely with the Higher Education Ministry to formulate a suitable and practical evaluation system for student participation.

Q: Who will guide the schools in implementation?

A: We have established a Co-curriculum Development Committee and a District Co-curriculum Monitoring Team to plan and develop activities, guide schools and monitor expenditure. I would like to stress again that the involvement of students in co-curricular activities is compulsory and the ministry encourages the formation of more uniformed units in schools. We have also directed that training modules at teacher training institutions and public universities fulfill the co-curricular requirements of schools. We want teachers to not only be active but also have the expertise to manage and train students.

Sources: New Straits Time
Wednesday, August 22, 2007, 08.48 AM


BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • Text Book: The Art of Public Speaking by Stephen E. Lucas

  • Enhancing Personal Quality (empowering yourself to attain peak performance at work) by Ranijt Singh Malhi and Rober W. Reasoner




  • News paper: News Straits Time (Wednesday, August 22, 2007)

  • News paper: The Star (Tuesday June 20, 2006)




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